The players are 11 on both sides of teams in a match, however substitutes are also available. There are four classes in which the 11 players are divided Although there are 11 players on a team there are several commonly used ways to arrange them. The three most commonly used formations today are probably the , , and the note: first is the of defenders, the second midfielders, and third forwards although there are some different variations of each.
Two variations of a are the "flat back four" and a "diamond back" or "sweeper, stopper" where the back four defenders form a diamond with the stopper ahead of the sweeper.
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Other less commonly used formations are the , , and the Changes can be made in the formations according to the position of the game. If a team has scored only one goal, they can change formations in the closing stages of the match or they can put more players forward to score more goals when they are trailing by a goal. There are 4 referees. The centre referee has sole authority, but two assistant referees who officiate from the touchline may advise him, particularly on issues of offsides and whether the ball has left the pitch, or draw his attention to infringements that he may have missed.
The fourth referee stands off the pitch in between both team's benches and controls substitutions and keeps track of the games goals, bookings and ejections. A football match consists of two halves and each half is 45 minutes long. Between the two halves, there is an interval, which is not more than 15 minutes long.
Stoppage time also called injury time is the time added on at the end of each half at the discretion of the referee.
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The stoppage time added is roughly proportional to the length of delays in the game. These delays may be due to injuries, time lost through substitutions, general time wasting etc. Although these may seem insignificant, stoppage time can be crucial for losing teams to equalize or even win.
The game went into extra time whereby Real won leading to their 10th European title. Bayern Munich scored an early goal and controlled most of the match, until Manchester United turned things around with two goals in the 91 st and 93rd minutes of the game to win Countinho scored a goal in the 91 st minute, and another by Neymar in the 97 th.
Kim Young-gwon scored in the 92 nd minute; Son Heung-min scored in the 96 th minute.
STOPPAGE TIME | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary
If tied at the end of regular time, in some competitions the game may go into extra time, which consists of two further minute periods. If the score is still tied after extra time, the teams proceed to penalty shoot outs known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark" to determine the winner. Note that goals scored during extra time periods are considered part of the final score of the game, unlike kicks from the penalty mark which are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next stage of the tournament.
In competitions in which each round involves the two teams playing each other twice, known as two-legged ties , the winner is the team with the highest aggregate score over the two matches. If this results in a draw, the away goals rule is usually applied to determine which team progresses: the goals scored by each team away from their nominated venue being compared.
Should results still be equal following this calculation, the game will go into extra time. If the score is still tied after extra time, kicks from the penalty mark are usually required. Other competitions may require a tied game to be replayed, but that is a very rare rule. Obviously, the most common way of scoring is by kicking the ball, but the next most common way is to hit the ball with a player's head, more commonly known as 'heading the ball'. Soccer balls headed by highly skilled players can travel over 20 miles per hour.
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The application of the offside law is best considered in three steps: Offside position, Offside offence, and Offside sanction. A player is in an offside position if "he is nearer to his opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second last opponent", unless he is in his own half of the field of play. A player level with the second last opponent is considered to be in an onside position.
Note that the last two defenders can be either the goalkeeper and another defender, or two ordinary defenders. A player in an offside position is only committing an offside offence if, "at the moment the ball touches or is played by one of his team", the player is in the referee's opinion involved in active play by: interfering with play; interfering with an opponent; or gaining an advantage by being in that position. Determining whether a play is in "active play" can be complex.
A player is not committing an offside offence if the player receives the ball directly from a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick. FIFA issued new guidelines for interpreting the offside law in and these were incorporated in law 11 in July The new wording seeks to more precisely define the three cases as follows:.
The referees' interpretation of these new definitions is still proving controversial till this day, largely over what movements a player in an offside position can make without being judged to be interfering with an opponent. The sanction for an offside offence is an indirect free kick to the opposing team, from where the offence occurred. In enforcing this law, the referee depends greatly on his assistant referee, who generally keeps in line with the second last defender in his relevant end.
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The assistant referees' task with regards to off-side can be difficult, as they need to keep up with attacks and counter attacks, consider which players are in an offside position when the ball is played often from the other end of the field , and then determine whether the offside positioned players become involved in active play. The risk of false judgement is further enhanced by the foreshortening effect, which occurs when the distance between attacking player and the assistant referee is significantly different from the distance to the defending player, and the assistant referee is not directly in line with the defender.
The difficulty of off-side officiating is often underestimated by spectators. Trying to judge if a player is level with an opponent at the moment the ball is kicked is not easy: if an attacker and a defender are running in opposite directions, they can be two metres apart in a tenth of a second. Direct free kick is most probably rewarded to a team if the opponent's player touches the ball with his hands or arms unless he is the goalkeeper within the penalty area or fouls a player on the other team.
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